Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) भारतीय अंतराळ संशोधन संस्था 

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Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) (Bengaluru):

This institute was established in 1969 with the aim of developing technology for making and launching of artificial satellites. ISRO has successfully launched a large number of satellites. India also has made remarkable progress in the science and technology of launch vehicles. Various types of launch vehicles have been developed to put satellites having weight up to 2500 kg, into all types of orbits. PSLV (Polar satellite launch vehicle) and GSLV (geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle) are two important launchers.

The INSAT (Indian National Satellite System) and GSAT (Geosynchronous Satellite System) series of satellites support telecommunication network, television broadcasting and meteorological services. It is because of them that telephone, television and internet services are available everywhere in the country. The EDUSAT (Educational Satellite) satellite in this series is used exclusively for education. The IRS (Indian Remote Sensing) satellite series is used for the monitoring and management of natural resources as well as disaster management. The IRNSS (Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System) satellite series has been established for the exactly locate position of any place on the earth’s surface in terms of its precise latitude and longitude.

Astrosat:  In 2015, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) launched an artificial satellite called Astrosat, in space. This satellite has ultraviolet and X-ray telescopes and detectors. Most of the parts used in this satellite are made in India. It is a unique system having different kinds of telescopes on a single satellite. Indian scientists are studying various aspects of the Universe using the data obtained with these telescopes.

Types of Satellite:

Type of satelliteFunction of the satelliteThe names of Indian satellite series and their launch vehicles
Weather satelliteStudy and prediction of weather.INSAT and GSAT. Launcher: GSLV
Communication satelliteEstablish communication between different location in the world through use of specific waves.INSAT and GSAT. Launcher: GSLV
Broadcast satelliteTelecasting of television programsINSAT and GSAT. Launcher: GSLV
Navigational satelliteFix the location of any place on the earth’s surface in terms of its very precise latitude and longitude.RNSS. Launcher : PSLV.
Military SatelliteCollect information for security aspects 
Earth Observation SatelliteStudy of forests, deserts, oceans, polar ice on the earth’s surface, exploration and management of natural resources, observation and guidance in case of natural calamities like flood and earthquake.IRS. Launcher : PSLV.
Satellite Launch CentersSpace Research Organizations
Thumba, ThiruvanathapuramVikram Sarabhai Space Center, Thiruvanathapuram
SriharikotaSatish Dhavan Space Research Center, Sriharikota
Chandipur, OdishaSpace Application Center, Ahmedabad

Moon Mission:-

Chandrayan-1:

Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) successfully launched Chandrayan- 1 in 2008 and placed it an in to an orbit around the moon. It sent useful information to earth for about a year. The most important discovery made during the mission was the presence of water on the moon surface. India was the first country to discover this.

Chandrayan-2

It is the second lunar exploration mission developed by ISRO. The main aim is to map and study the variations in lunar surface composition. The space craft was launched from Satish Dhavan space center in Andhra Pradesh on 22 July 2019. The spacecraft reached the lunar orbit on 20 August 2019. However, the lander crashed when it attempting to land moon’s South Pole region on 6 September 2019.

Chandrayan-3:

14 July 2023 ISRO launched Chandrayan-3 at Satish Dhavan Space Centre, Shriharikota by LMV3. On 23 August 2023, it landed near the moons south pole. After this India become the first country to land on the moons south pole.

The mission objectives of Chandrayan-3 are;

1) To demonstrate safe and soft landing on lunar surface.

2) To demonstrate rover roving on the moon and conduct the scientific experiments.

Mars Mission: Mangalyaan

The spacecraft ‘Mangalyaan’ made by ISRO using minimum expenses was launched in 5 November, 2013 and was placed into orbit around the Mars in 24 September, 2014. The primary object of mission is to develop the technologies required for designing, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission. Another objective is to explore mars surface features, morphology and atmosphere using scientific instruments.

Father of the Indian space program:

Vikram Sarabhai is considered as the father of Indian space program. His efforts led to foundation of Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) at Ahmedabad. In 1962, Indian government constituted ‘Indian National Committee for Space Research’ under his Chairmanship and first satellite launch center was established at Thumba in 1963. The launching of India’s first satellite ‘Aryabhatta’ into the space, was the result of his efforts. He played an important role in the establishment of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)

India’s 1st man in space:-

Rakesh Sharma was the first Indian to travel to space on 3 April 1984. He went into space along with two Russian astronauts under the joint Indo – USSR space programmed. He stayed in space for 8 days

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