Earth’s Interior

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Earth and rest of solar system formed about 4.6 billion year ago from a huge cloud of gas and dust following a star explosion within the universe. The sun formed at the center of the some debris.

Large pieces of stones converted into planets, including earth. Earth’s gravity continued to attract debris. Over time the Earth took shape. Scientist gathers information about earth’s interior by recording, imaging and measuring vibrations or seismic wave caused by earthquakes and explosion. This all things provide the data about the composition and structure of earth interior. According to that data, the earth have inner core, Mantle, outer core and crust.

THE CRUST: The uppermost layer of the earth’s surface is in solid state and is called the crust. It is 30 to 35 km thick. The thickness of the crust below the continents is from 16 to 45 km and under the mountain ranges it is 40 km and under the oceans it is less than 10 km.

Crust can be divided into two sub-layers.

Continental Crust: The continents are mainly composed by Silica and Aluminium. The thickness of this layer is approximately 30 km. Granite rocks are mainly found in this layer.

Oceanic Crust: It is made up of silica and magnesium. This layer is approximately 7 to 10 km thick. In this layer, basalt and gabbro rocks are mainly found.

MANTLE: Below the crust lies the mantle. Mantle can be divided into two layers: upper and lower mantle. The upper layer is more in liquid state. Here, one finds magma chambers. It is through these chambers that magma comes out on the earth’s surface during volcanic eruptions. This layer is also known as asthenosphere. In this layer the temperature around 2500° C at a depth of 2400 to 2900 km.

CORE: The core starts from around the depth of about 2900 km from the earth’s surface. The thickness of the core is about 3471 km. This layer can be divided into outer core and inner core.

OUTER CORE: Outer core extends from around 2900 km to 5100 km. The temperature of the liquid outer core is around 5000°C. The outer core is made up of Iron and nickel.

INNER CORE: Inner core extends from around 5150 km to the depth of around 6371 km. As the materials in this layer are under extreme pressure therefore the inner core is in solid state. The temperature here is almost equivalent to the surface temperature of the sun.

Do you know which The Deepest Hole Ever Dug is?

On Russia’s Kola Peninsula, near Norway, geologist has been drilling a well since 1970. Now at over 40,000 feet deep, it is the deepest hole in Earth.

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